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攀冰不是攀岩(译文)

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发表于 2016-3-6 12:38 显示全部帖子
本帖最后由 dol528phin 于 2016-3-6 12:53 编辑

很不幸,春节放假期间得知十四在双桥沟发生的意外。心中虽有疑惑,但还是按捺了心情等待目击者的报告,对此事未敢有更多揣测。只希望所有喜欢攀冰的小伙伴们能够注意安全。

前两天,“盗版岩与酒”上陶瓷虾发转载了一片Will Gadd在2011年写的一篇帖子《Ice Climbing is NOT Rock Climbing》,受邀对此文进行翻译。在此与大家一起分享,还是强调这个又老又重要的话题——安全。


Ice Climbing is NOT Rock Climbing

Jeffrey Butler & Will Gadd

Will Gadd note after the below was posted: Please keep the comments somewhat civil and constructive. There is a lot of good information (harness, gi gi) getting added, let’s focus–as most people are–on what can be done differently rather than attacking either the climbers or the video effort. Just for reference, I’ve personally made a lot of the errors in the video, we all have, the idea is to learn and do better, thanks.

And the two screen capture pictures are of the BD Bod harness that’s not doubled back (you can tell because you can see the two silver pieces, shouldn’t be able to see ‘em both!) and the Kong Gi Gi, which is getting used totally inappropriately. That the harness and the belay both held is pretty amazing to me, I would not have put money on either system holding even a short fall. Thanks to the comments section for noticing both, I didn’t until it was pointed out, which kinda scares me…

Fall. from Jeffrey Butler on Vimeo.


One of the biggest problems I see in ice climbing starts with people approaching ice climbing like they do rock climbing. That mindset is totally inappropriate, and leads to really avoidable accidents. A friend of mine recently sent me a link to a video shot Dracula, a one-pitch classic WI 4+ in New Hampshire. The leader gets pumped, struggles to get a screw in, and falls. Skip to 3: 28 to see it go bad, but the whole thing starts to go bad way before that point. I’m going to pick a few key points out of this video that are really serious errors. These errors are unfortunately very common, and they shouldn’t be.

Fortunately this video is on Vimeo, where you can load the whole video up then click and hold on the timeline bar below the video to move around the video eASIly. This video is not, as the narrator suggests, a film about “change.” I see and hear very little about “change” in the film, what I see are common errors leading to a completely avoidable accident, and not much mental switch among the climbers in the follow-up footage.

The first and biggest error in the thinking of the climbers is expressed at the end of the film when the belayer says at 14:20, “Falling is very common, it should be expected.” No, it isn’t. In 30 years of ice climbing I’ve caught exactly one lead fall (Guy Lacelle of all people), and never fAllen on lead. Most of the people I climb with are the same; a few fell off once or maybe twice early in their careers before figuring out it was a really bad idea… Very ocCASIOnally things just go bad, but I can count those type of accidents on one hand. I know three people with fused ankles or worse from taking very short falls on ice. Falling is not common and should not be “expected.” A major mental reset is called for.

2:00 Apparently the belay is a in place subject to falling ice. The belayer decides the solution to this problem is to have enough slack in the system to move to avoid the falling ice because, “If I get knocked out by a piece of ice what good am I as a belayer?” I’m not making that quote up. A better solution would be to have the belayer not in the line of fire at all. Full stop. I can only remember two belays ever (ironically, one with Mark Twight) where I could not protect the belayer from falling ice, and in retrospect I put the belay in a shit place both times (sorry Mr. Dornian). Do shorter pitches, whatever it takes, but having your belayer in any position where he could be hit by falling ice is flat-out stupid or ignorant. Even the video guy is standing under falling ice at 3:20; Dracula is a one-pitch route for god’s sake, move out of the way! If the first rule of ice climbing is don’t fall off then surely the second is, “Don’t stand where you can get hit with falling ice.” This is rock-climbing thinking, where it’s abnormal to have falling ice. It is a given that a lot of ice will or can be falling down an ice climb, plan for it.

Lots of shots of the climber swinging tools, etc. This is going to sound harsh, but there needs to be some reality interjected into this film: The climber had absolutely no business being on lead on ice. His sticks were shit (3:17 is a good example of a lousy stick, you can see his tool wobble as he pulls up), his footwork is terrible, and I’m amazed he didn’t fall off earlier. I don’t say that to be insulting, but because I suspect less-direct commentary would be ineffective given the rest of what is said and done in the film.

Quote, “Yeah, I have great faith in the equipment now, and it gives me even more reason to put pro in.” This is just wrong on so many levels, but first of all it misses the entire point that ice climbing isn’t about the pro, it’s about first not falling off. Have enough pro so when something really surprising happens you don’t die (and he did have enough pro in for that), but thinking that, “Hey, the pro works, great, I can fall off more now!” is just wrong. The thinking should be, “Damn, I fell off, and only through incredible luck did I not completely fuck myself up for the rest of my life, I need to re-think my approach to ice climbing.”

I want to know what the climbers around 8:50 to 9:20 or so are saying under the voice-over. From my read of it they are saying, “Dude, get better fucking sticks into the ice, like this. And here’s how to clip into the pommel or lower hole on your tool to so you don’t fall off and nearly die again.” These are basic skills the climber should have known, and obviously didn’t.

The climber should have stopped way, way before he fell. In rock climbing it’s often OK to climb deep into a pump, even to the point of falling. In fact, that’s often the point in rock climbing. It is NOT ok to climb super-pumped on ice, the consequences of a fall are simply too high. This guy could have been paralyzed for life, broken both ankles, or died. If you’re getting super pumped on ice do what the other climbers suggest at 9:00: CLIP INTO YOUR TOOL and put a screw in. Train doing this on a TR so you’re comfortable with it. I have seen a half-dozen screws over the years placed a little into the ice, and then a tool beside the screw, but no climber… Falling off while placing a screw is a common way to fall, but totally needless. So, stop before you get super pumped, put in a good screw, reset, maybe back off if you can’t climb the pitch without getting super pumped. Or, climb it in five-foot sections putting in a screw and hanging; I have FAR more respect for someone who doe that than gets pumped and falls off. If you’re super pumped stop, reset. No “free” pitch is worth getting injured for.

So what should we do to avoid this accident?

-Climb on toprope more. Many, many laps. Practice putting in screws, climbing with and without crampons, hooking, making placements, etc. I’d bet this climber had done less than 30 pitches total of ice in his life. At least 150 30M laps is the bare minimum to have any sort of understanding of ice.

-Practice clipping into a tool and putting screws in. This normally takes two quickdraws on the harness, or a sling to the belay loop. Lots of ways to do it, practice.

The big problems I see in ice climbing are seldom to do with fitness. Almost always they start with the climber’s approach to the sport.

And finally, and this is an intense situation so it’s small criticism but something to think about, if I fall off like that please don’t lower me head-First Back toward the ground. The climber’s legs kip over his head at about 9:50. Again, it’s an intense situation, but I’d suspect a possible spinal injury with that much force and speed… But a small criticism in the whole picture, and the climber is very lucky to have an ER doc on hand–if the situation were worse that could have made the difference between living and dying.

OK, that about sums it up, lots of other issues, but those are the main ones to me. I’d be happy to offer a free day of instruction with these climbers and their video guy to improve their technique and approach to ice climbing; I don’t mean this to be harsh to the individual climbers at all, with any luck I will have caused some thinking among a much wider readership as these errors are way too common, these guys just made a video…


攀冰不是攀岩


翻译  芽子


      Will Gadd 在看到这个视频后发表了如下的帖子:请大家在发表评论的时候说些有建设性的话,同时也请注意用词的文明。观众在下面的回帖中加入了很多有用的信息,比如关于安全带和GiGi的信息,但还是让我们更加关注攀冰实际操作中的问题,而不是攻击短片中的攀冰者和拍摄者吧。我自己在短片中确实做了不少错误操作,我们所有人在影片中都犯了错误,但我们也从中学到了东西,并希望做的更好。谢谢!

       帖子中的两个截屏画面是关于安全带没有反扣,Kong的GiGi保护器没有被正确使用的画面。看到了安全带和保护器的使用时我也是惊呆了,我可  不会花钱去买短距离冲坠都搞不定的装备上。谢谢下面的评论能够指出安全带和GiGi的问题,在没有人指出前我是一点都没意识到,想起来还挺后怕的......——Jeffrey Butler

短片《冲坠》


http://static.video.qq.com/TPout.swf?vid=q0184vz1f68&auto=0


      我意识到的最大的一个问题就是在开始接触攀冰初期,攀冰者会向攀岩一样地去进行攀冰运动。这种想法是完全不对的,而且还会导致本可避免的意外。最近,我的一个朋友发给了我一个视频链接,是关于一段在新罕布什尔州名字叫做Dracula的典型WI4攀冰路线上发生的冲坠。先锋胳膊酸胀,勉强地放置冰锥,然后发生了冲坠。视频的3分28秒处,发生了意外,但整个意外早在这之前就已经有了种种迹象。在这里,我将挑出几个视频中的非常严重的错误。不幸的是,这些错误都很的常见,而且也都是不该犯的。

      好在,这段视频可以在QQ视频上找到,你可以加载整段视频后在时间线上拖拽按钮进行观看。这段视频并非像影片讲述者暗示的那样,主题是关于“改变”。视频中,我能看到的、听到的“改变”微乎其微,而更多看到的是在先锋攀登时候犯下的常见错误,而这些意外完全是可以避免的。此外在接下来的镜头中,也没有看到它对其他攀登者有任何启示作用。


第一个我想指出的,同时也是首要的错误,那就是在影片的结尾处,14分20秒的地方,保护员说“冲坠是很常见的,也应该是可预见的。” 不,完全错了。在过去三十年的攀冰生涯中,我只制动过一次攀冰中发生的先锋冲坠,而自己从来没有发生过任何先锋冲坠。与我一起攀冰的大多数伙伴们也都是如此;只有少数几个人在刚开始攀冰的时候发生过1-2次攀冰冲坠,然后就发现在攀冰时发生冲坠真的是太糟糕了。虽然极少数时候,也有一些意外的事情发生,但这种事情屈指可数。我知道的有三个人在攀冰的时候冲坠了很短的距离,就导致脚踝骨折打了钢钉或更糟。所以,冲坠是不常见的,而且是不应该被“预见”的。这一点一定要重新认识。

      在视频2分钟的位置,保护员的位置很明显是落冰会砸到的地方。对于这个问题,视频中的保护员决定留有足够的绳子,通过移动位置来避免被落冰砸到。因为“如果我被碎冰砸到了,我还是称职的保护员吗?”,这句话可不是我编出来的。而更好的解决方法则应该是彻底让保护员不在路线的正下方。就可以了。截至现在,我只记得有两次攀冰我不能确保保护员的安全(讽刺的是,其中一次就是和Mark Twight一起攀冰),而且两次都把保护点放置在了很不靠谱的地方(真对不起你,Dornian)。所以,虽然你不顾一切地缩短了攀爬的绳距,但是如果你将保护员至于会被冰砸到的危险境地,那也是愚蠢至极的。视频的3分20秒,就连拍视频的家伙也是站在落冰的下方。幸好Dracula只是一条单段的攀冰线路。一定不要站在了线路的正下方!如果说攀冰的第一法则就是不要冲坠,那么攀冰的第二法则就一定是“不要站在会被落冰砸到地方。” 如果觉得落冰是不常发生的,这就是攀岩思维。要事先假设在攀冰的过程中会有很多落冰,然后对此作出计划和应对。

      视频里还有很多攀冰者挥镐的镜头。这虽然这听起来很刺耳,但我还是有必要说句实话:这位攀冰者根本就不够资格进行先锋攀冰。他的打镐都很差(3分17秒就是一个坏镐的最好例子,你能看到他拉起自己的时候冰镐在摆动),他的脚法也很糟,所以我都很纳闷他居然到了这个时候才发生冲坠。我说这些并没有任何侮辱的意思,但我担心说得太委婉对其后面的所作所为起不到作用。

      视频中说“是的,我现在对装备更有信心了,这也给了我放置更多保护的理由。” 这句话在很多层面来说也都是错误的,首先它没有抓住攀冰的要领,不冲坠才是攀冰的关键,而不是放置保护。因为放置足够的保护,当意外发生的时候没有挂掉(视频中,他确实放了足够的保护),然后你就会想“看啊,保护真管用,太好了,我现在可以更多地发生冲坠了!”这种想法完全就是错误的。正确的想法应该是,“该死,我冲坠了,要不是这么幸运,我可能就挂了,我需要重新思考我攀冰的方法。”

我想知道视频中8分50秒到9分20秒左右被画外音覆盖的其他攀冰者说话的内容。我觉得他们可能在说“老兄,应该打镐再打结实点嘛,应该像这样。应该这样把牛尾扣在冰镐的上孔或下孔里,这样就不会差点被摔死了。”这些都是很基础的技术,攀冰者都应该知道,但显然他们不知道。


视频里的攀冰者应该在发生冲坠之前就停止了攀爬了。攀岩的时候,如果你的胳膊酸胀还是可以继续进行攀爬的,甚至还可以一直爬到冲坠。事实上,攀岩就是要经常达到这个临界点的。但在攀冰的时候,还攀爬到胳膊特别酸胀就很有问题了,这样发生冲坠的可能性就非常之高了。视频中的这个哥们轻则可能会脚踝骨折,重则可能下半辈子瘫痪,或者直接就没命了。如果你在攀冰的时候,觉得胳膊非常的酸胀,就应该按照视频9分钟时候那个攀冰者建议的去做:先把自己扣在冰镐上,然后打一颗冰锥。可以先在有指导的情况下这样练习,这样可以使你更加安心。攀冰这么多年,在这种情况下,我看到过有人拧冰锥的时候只拧进去一点,也看见过有人在冰锥旁边打镐,但就是没看见过…(累了也不打镐拧锥休息的)。在放置冰锥的时候发生冲坠是常见的一种冲坠,但这种冲坠根本就是可以避免的。所以,在胳膊非常酸胀的时候就应该停止攀爬了,然后好好拧进一颗锥,重新调整一下,如果胳膊真的酸胀得厉害无法完成这段绳距,就干脆降下来。或者,再向上爬1.5米,再放置一根冰锥然后把自己吊在那里休息;于我来说,相较于胳膊酸胀还继续攀爬到冲坠的攀冰者我更敬重那些勇于退下的攀冰者。如果你的胳膊已经酸胀,请停下来重新调整,没有什么线路是值得用受伤来换取的。


那么我们要怎样做才能避免这样的意外发生呢?

--多进行顶绳攀爬。一趟一趟地爬。练习放置冰锥,穿冰爪爬,不穿冰爪爬,练习钩挂技术等。我打赌这名攀冰者从初学到现在,所攀的绳距不超过30个。30米的线路,至少攀上150回才能开始对冰有一点点感觉。

--练习将自己挂入冰镐,练习放置冰锥。一般来说,这种情况需要安全带上有两把快挂,或者安全带的保护环上有一根扁带。有很多种方法,一定要多加练习。

      攀冰中我见过的最大问题就是很少有人做健身。大多数的攀冰者都是以攀登者(攀岩)的方式开始这项运动的。

      最后,还有一个比较关键的问题,这里不做过多的批评,但大家可以认真思考一下。如果我要是这样摔下来,请千万不要把我大头朝下地放到地面。影片9分50秒的时候,攀冰者成倒置的体态被放下来。再说明一下,这种时候非常地关键,以这样的速度和冲击力摔下来,我严重怀疑攀登者的脊椎会受伤......但在整个视频中对这点没做任何评论。很幸运的是,在事情发生的时候刚好有一名攀岩者是急诊医生——如果情况更糟的话,攀冰者可能面对的就是生或死不同的结果了。


      好了,大概就是这些,还有很多其他的问题,但是上述的问题对我来说是最为重要的。我很乐意为视频中的攀冰者和拍摄视频的哥们提供一天免费的培训,借此来增强他们攀冰的技术和方法;我这样语出不逊并没有针对某个攀冰者的意思,他们只是拍了个视频而已,但如果运气好的话,我的这篇文章将会就这些攀冰中常见的错误在读者中引起更广泛的思考。

3人 评分 查看全部评分
发表于 2016-3-6 14:55 显示全部帖子
多训练无保护攀登也许会好一些。
发表于 2016-3-8 22:42 显示全部帖子
说的很对,两个是完全不同的体系,把基础一步一步练习好很重要。
发表于 2016-3-18 20:19 显示全部帖子
很棒的分析!
发表于 2016-5-15 13:41 显示全部帖子
学习啦,很不错的文章,受益匪浅。
发表于 2016-5-18 11:56 显示全部帖子
学习了,说的很有道理。
攀冰体能和技术上入门比攀岩简单,所以现在国内很流行。可是越看起来简单的东西,越会有很多人忽略危险。攀冰的冲坠相对攀岩而言很多时候是致命的。而更杯具的是国内的条件攀冰缺乏训练条件。30个30米绳距多余国内大多数人可能5年都实现不了。
发表于 2018-5-8 20:18 显示全部帖子
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